Supplementary data for the paper 'Immersive Insights: Evaluating Augmented Reality Interfaces for Pedestrians in a CAVE-Based Experiment'

doi: 10.4121/36b088db-cc3d-45c8-9b9e-8cbc614b74aa.v2
The doi above is for this specific version of this dataset, which is currently the latest. Newer versions may be published in the future. For a link that will always point to the latest version, please use
doi: 10.4121/36b088db-cc3d-45c8-9b9e-8cbc614b74aa
Datacite citation style:
Wilbert Tabone; Happee, Riender; Yang, Yue; Sadraei, Ehsan; Jorge Garcia de Pedro et. al. (2024): Supplementary data for the paper 'Immersive Insights: Evaluating Augmented Reality Interfaces for Pedestrians in a CAVE-Based Experiment'. Version 2. 4TU.ResearchData. dataset.
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version 2 - 2024-07-11 (latest)
version 1 - 2024-07-08

Introduction: Augmented reality (AR) has been increasingly studied in transportation, particularly for drivers and pedestrians interacting with automated vehicles (AVs). Previous research evaluated AR interfaces using online video-based questionnaires but lacked human-subject research in immersive environments. This study examined if prior online evaluations of nine AR interfaces could be replicated in an immersive virtual environment and if AR design effectiveness depends on pedestrian attention allocation. Methods: Thirty participants completed 120 trials in a CAVE-based simulator with yielding and non-yielding AVs, rating interface intuitiveness and crossing the road when feeling safe. To emulate visual distraction, participants had to look into an attention-attractor circle that disappeared 1 s after the interface appeared. Results: The results showed that intuitiveness ratings from the current CAVE-based study and the previous online study correlated strongly (r ≈ 0.90). Head-locked interfaces and familiar designs (augmented traffic lights, zebra crossing) yielded higher intuitiveness scores and quicker crossing initiations than vehicle-locked interfaces. Vehicle-locked interfaces were less effective when the attention-attractor was on the environment’s opposite side, while head-locked interfaces were relatively unaffected by attention-attractor position. Discussion: In conclusion, this ‘AR in VR’ study shows strong congruence between intuitiveness ratings in a CAVE-based study and online research, and demonstrates the importance of interface placement in relation to user gaze direction.

  • 2024-07-08 first online
  • 2024-07-11 published, posted
script/m; data/mat; data/xlsx; data/txt; data/docx; survey/pdf; information/docx
Department of Cognitive Robotics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology,
Delft, Netherlands
Institute for Transport Studies, Faculty of Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom


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