Supplementary data for the paper 'AR-based telepresence in a robotic manipulation task: An experimental evaluation'
The current study investigated a spectrum of control methods in human-robot interaction, ranging from direct control to telepresence with a virtual representation of the robot arm. Twenty-four participants used a setup comprising a Franka Emika Panda robot arm, Varjo XR-3 head-mounted display, and Leap Motion Controller. Participants performed a box-and-block task with the bare hand (A), and under five gesture-controlled robotic operation methods: direct sight (B), sight via video-feedthrough (C), in a 3D telepresence environment with (D) and without (E) virtual representation of the robot arm, and using a 2D video feed (F). The number of grabbing attempts did not differ significantly between conditions, but local operation (B & C) yielded more transferred blocks than teleoperation (D–F). Teleoperation using a 3D presentation was advantageous compared to using a 2D video feed, as demonstrated by lower peak forces and smaller range in gripper heights compared to the 2D video feed, findings supported by analyses of head movement activity. Finally, the bare hand yielded the best performance and subjective ratings. In summary, teleoperation using a 3D presentation provided a smoother interaction than a 2D video feed. However, direct human interaction remains a benchmark yet to surpass.
- 2023-09-04 first online, published, posted