Supplementary data for the paper 'How should external Human-Machine Interfaces behave? Examining the effects of colour, position, message, activation distance, vehicle yielding, and visual distraction among 1,434 participants'

doi: 10.4121/14465715.v2
The doi above is for this specific version of this dataset, which is currently the latest. Newer versions may be published in the future. For a link that will always point to the latest version, please use
doi: 10.4121/14465715
Datacite citation style:
Bazilinskyy, Pavlo; Kooijman, L. (Lars); Dodou, Dimitra; de Winter, Joost (2022): Supplementary data for the paper 'How should external Human-Machine Interfaces behave? Examining the effects of colour, position, message, activation distance, vehicle yielding, and visual distraction among 1,434 participants'. Version 2. 4TU.ResearchData. dataset. https://doi.org/10.4121/14465715.v2
Other citation styles (APA, Harvard, MLA, Vancouver, Chicago, IEEE) available at Datacite
Dataset
choose version:
version 2 - 2022-05-03 (latest)
version 1 - 2021-05-04
Delft University of Technology logo
usage stats
1767
views
1
citations
558
downloads
licence
cc-0.png logo CC0
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON’T WALK, WILL STOP, WON’T STOP, light bar), (4) activation distance (35 or 50 m from the pedestrian), and (5) the presence of visual distraction in the environment, on pedestrians' perceived safety of crossing the road in front of yielding and non-yielding AVs. Participants (N = 1434) had to press a key when they felt safe to cross while watching a random 40 out of 276 videos of an approaching AV with eHMI. Results showed that (1) green and cyan eHMIs led to higher perceived safety of crossing than red eHMIs; no significant difference was found between green and cyan, (2) eHMIs on the bumper and roof were more effective than eHMIs on the windshield, (3) for yielding AVs, perceived safety was higher for WALK compared to WILL STOP, followed by the light bar; for non-yielding AVs, a red bar yielded similar results to red text, (4) for yielding AVs, a red bar caused lower perceived safety when activated early compared to late, whereas green/cyan WALK led to higher perceived safety when activated late compared to early, and (5) distraction had no significant effect. We conclude that people adopt an egocentric perspective, that the windshield is an ineffective position, that the often-recommended colour cyan may have to be avoided, and that eHMI activation distance has intricate effects related to onset saliency.
history
  • 2021-05-04 first online
  • 2022-05-03 published, posted
publisher
4TU.ResearchData
funding
  • This research is supported by grant 016.Vidi.178.047 ("How should automated vehicles communicate with other road users?"), which is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).
organizations
TU Delft, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering

DATA

files (2)