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Climatology-based Adjustments for Radar Rainfall in an OperaTional Setting: Adjustment factors for the Netherlands

posted on 03.03.2021, 12:28 by Ruben Imhoff, Claudia Brauer, Klaas-Jan van Heeringen, H. (Hidde) Leijnse, Aart Overeem, Albrecht Weerts, R. (Remko) Uijlenhoet
This dataset contains gridded adjustment factors for correction of the Quantitative Precipitation Estimations (QPE) of the two operational C-band weather radars operated by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). The factors are based on the CARROTS (Climatology-based Adjustments for Radar Rainfall in an OperaTional Setting) method, described in Imhoff et al. (2021).

The factors are available for every yearday (temporal resolution of one day) and are based on ten years (2009 - 2018) of radar and reference rainfall data, as distributed by KNMI.

For the derivation of the factors, both the operational radar QPE ( and a reference rainfall dataset of KNMI ( are used. The reference is not available in real time, but becomes available with a one to two month delay and was therefore available for this climatological factor derivation.

The derivation method was as follows per grid cell in the radar domain (Imhoff et al., 2021):

1. For every day in the period 2009--2018, an accumulation took place of all 5-min rainfall sums (of both the unadjusted radar QPE and the reference) within a moving window of 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of interest.

2. For every yearday, the accumulations (per day) from the previous step were averaged over the ten years.

3. Gridded climatological adjustment factors (Fclim) were calculated per yearday as: Fclim(i,j) = RA(i,j) / RU(i,j). In this equation, RA(i,j) is the reference rainfall sum for the ten years and RU(i,j) the operationally available unadjusted radar QPE sum, based on the previous two steps, at grid cell (i, j).

For more details about the method, see Imhoff et al. (2021). For more information about the reference dataset, which consists of the radar QPE spatially adjusted with observations from 31 automatic and 325 manual rain gauges, see Overeem et al. (2009a,b).


DAISY2‐project, supported by the European Regional Development Fund (Grant PROJ‐00581)

Deltares Strategic Research Programme






Time coverage

2009 - present (values for one year, 2018, are given, but apply to all years)


The Netherlands, full extent: 55.974, 0.0 [ULC]; 55.389, 10.856 [URC]; 49.362, 0.0 [LLC]; 48.895, 9.009 [LRC]




Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University & Research Operational Water Management & Early Warning, Department of Inland Water Systems, Deltares R&D Observations and Data Technology, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, TU Delft



Wageningen University and Research