3 files

Event Graph of BPI Challenge 2015

posted on 22.04.2021, 06:57 by Dirk Fahland, Stefan Esser
Business process event data modeled as labeled property graphs

Data Format

The dataset comprises one labeled property graph in two different file formats.

#1) Neo4j .dump format

A neo4j (https://neo4j.com) database dump that contains the entire graph and can be imported into a fresh neo4j database instance using the following command, see also the neo4j documentation: https://neo4j.com/docs/

/bin/neo4j-admin.(bat|sh) load --database=graph.db --from=

The .dump was created with Neo4j v3.5.

#2) .graphml format

A .zip file containing a .graphml file of the entire graph

Data Schema

The graph is a labeled property graph over business process event data. Each graph uses the following concepts

:Event nodes - each event node describes a discrete event, i.e., an atomic observation described by attribute "Activity" that occurred at the given "timestamp"

:Entity nodes - each entity node describes an entity (e.g., an object or a user), it has an EntityType and an identifier (attribute "ID")

:Log nodes - describes a collection of events that were recorded together, most graphs only contain one log node

:Class nodes - each class node describes a type of observation that has been recorded, e.g., the different types of activities that can be observed, :Class nodes group events into sets of identical observations

:CORR relationships - from :Event to :Entity nodes, describes whether an event is correlated to a specific entity; an event can be correlated to multiple entities

:DF relationships - "directly-followed by" between two :Event nodes describes which event is directly-followed by which other event; both events in a :DF relationship must be correlated to the same entity node. All :DF relationships form a directed acyclic graph.

:HAS relationship - from a :Log to an :Event node, describes which events had been recorded in which event log

:OBSERVES relationship - from an :Event to a :Class node, describes to which event class an event belongs, i.e., which activity was observed in the graph

:REL relationship - placeholder for any structural relationship between two :Entity nodes

The concepts a further defined in Stefan Esser, Dirk Fahland: Multi-Dimensional Event Data in Graph Databases. CoRR abs/2005.14552 (2020) https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14552

Data Contents

neo4j-bpic15-2021-02-17 (.dump|.graphml.zip)

An integrated graph describing the raw event data of the entire BPI Challenge 2015 dataset.
van Dongen, B.F. (Boudewijn) (2015): BPI Challenge 2015. 4TU.ResearchData. Collection. https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:31a308ef-c844-48da-948c-305d167a0ec1

This data is provided by five Dutch municipalities. The data contains all building permit applications over a period of approximately four years. There are many different activities present, denoted by both codes (attribute concept:name) and labels, both in Dutch (attribute taskNameNL) and in English (attribute taskNameEN). The cases in the log contain information on the main application as well as objection procedures in various stages. Furthermore, information is available about the resource that carried out the task and on the cost of the application (attribute SUMleges). The processes in the five municipalities should be identical, but may differ slightly. Especially when changes are made to procedures, rules or regulations the time at which these changes are pushed into the five municipalities may differ. Of course, over the four year period, the underlying processes have changed. The municipalities have a number of questions, namely: What are the roles of the people involved in the various stages of the process and how do these roles differ across municipalities? What are the possible points for improvement on the organizational structure for each of the municipalities? The employees of two of the five municipalities have physically moved into the same location recently. Did this lead to a change in the processes and if so, what is different? Some of the procedures will be outsourced from 2018, i.e. they will be removed from the process and the applicant needs to have these activities performed by an external party before submitting the application. What will be the effect of this on the organizational structures in the five municipalities? Where are differences in throughput times between the municipalities and how can these be explained? What are the differences in control flow between the municipalities? There are five different log files available in this collection. Events are labeled with both a code and a Dutch and English label. Each activity code consists of three parts: two digits, a variable number of characters, and then three digits. The first two digits as well as the characters indicate the subprocess the activity belongs to. For instance ‘01_HOOFD_xxx’ indicates the main process and ‘01_BB_xxx’ indicates the ‘objections and complaints’ (‘Beroep en Bezwaar’ in Dutch) subprocess. The last three digits hint on the order in which activities are executed, where the first digit often indicates a phase within a process. Each trace and each event, contain several data attributes that can be used for various checks and predictions. Furthermore, some employees may have performed tasks for different municipalities, i.e. if the employee number is the same, it is safe to assume the same person is being identified.

The data contains the following entities and their events

- Application - a building permit application handled in one of five Dutch municipalities
- Case_R - a user or worker involved in handling the application
- Responsible_actor - a user or worker designated as responsible actor for an activity
- monitoringResource - a user or worker designated as monitoring resource for an activity

The data contains 5 event log nodes as the data was integrated from 5 different event logs from 5 different systems.

Data Size

BPIC15, nodes: 268851, relationships: 2620418





zipped graphml Neo4j database dump (binary)


TU Eindhoven, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science